Izimpawu zomdabu zaseMelika, ama-pictograms nama-petroglyphs

Wadwebela izwe umugqa oqondile, 
Ngokuba izulu, umnsalo uphezu kwawo; 
Isikhala esimhlophe phakathi kosuku 
egcwele izinkanyezi ebusuku; 
Kwesokunxele iphoyinti lokuphuma kwelanga, 
kwesokudla yiphoyinti lokushona kwelanga, 
phezulu yiphuzu lasemini, 
kanye nemvula nesimo sezulu esiguqubele 
Imigqa egagasi yehla kuye.
Из  "Izingoma ze-Hiawatha"  UHenry Wadsworth Longfellow

Lapho abahloli bamazwe baseYurophu befika eMelika, aboMdabu baseMelika babengakhulumisani ngolimi olubhalwayo njengoba silwazi. Kunalokho, baxoxa izindaba (izindaba ezixoxwayo) futhi bakha izithombe nezimpawu. Lolu hlobo lokuxhumana aluyona nje kuphela  abomdabu baseMelika kusukela kudala ngaphambi kokufika kokubhala, abantu emhlabeni wonke baqopha izehlakalo, imibono, izinhlelo, amamephu nemizwa ngokudweba izithombe nezimpawu ematsheni, esikhumbeni nakwezinye izindawo.

Izimpawu zomlando zezithombe zegama noma ibinzana zatholwa ngaphambi kuka-3000 BC. Lezi zimpawu, ezibizwa ngokuthi ama-pictograms, zidalwe ngokudweba ezindaweni zamatshe ezinemibala yemvelo. Lezi mibala zemvelo zazihlanganisa i-iron oxides etholakala ku-hematite noma i-limonite, ubumba olumhlophe noma oluphuzi, kanye namadwala athambile, amalahle, namaminerali ethusi. Lezi mibala zemvelo ziye zahlanganiswa ukuze kwakhiwe iphalethi eliphuzi, elimhlophe, elibomvu, eliluhlaza okotshani, elimnyama neliluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Ama-pictograms angokomlando avame ukutholakala ngaphansi kwemisele evikelayo noma emihumeni lapho ayevikelwe khona ezintweni.

UPaviotso Payute wenza ama-petroglyphs ka-Edward S. Curtis, ngo-1924.

U-Paviotso Payute udala ama-petroglyphs ka-Edward S. Curtis, ngo-1924.

Enye indlela yokuxhumana efanayo, ebizwa ngokuthi ama-petroglyphs, iye yaqoshwa, yaqoshwa, noma yagqokwa ematsheni. Lo mucu kungenzeka wenze isiboboki esibonakalayo edwaleni, noma kungenzeka ukuthi ujule ngokwanele ukuze uveze izinto ezingashintshiwe zombala ohlukile ngaphansi.

Izimpawu zomdabu zaseMelika zazifana negama futhi ngokuvamile zinencazelo eyodwa noma ngaphezulu kanye / noma zaziqukethe izincazelo ezihlukile. Ngokuhlukahluka kwezizwe ngezizwe, ngezinye izikhathi kunzima ukuqonda incazelo yazo, kanti ezinye izimpawu zicacile kakhulu. Ngenxa yokuthi amaNdiya izizwe khuluma izilimi eziningi, izimpawu noma "ukudweba izithombe" kwakuvame ukusetshenziswa ukudlulisa amagama nemibono. Izimpawu nazo zazisetshenziselwa ukuhlobisa izindlu, zazipendwe ezikhumbeni zenyathi futhi ziqopha izenzakalo ezibalulekile zesizwe.

I-Petroglyphs Ehlathini Elihlatshiwe lase-Arizona, edalwe yi-National Park Service.

I-Petroglyphs Ehlathini Elihlatshiwe lase-Arizona, edalwe yi-National Park Service.

Lezi zithombe ziwubufakazi obubalulekile benkulumo yamasiko futhi zinokubaluleka okujulile ngokomoya kubantu banamuhla boMdabu baseMelika kanye nenzalo yezifiki zokuqala zaseSpain.

Ukufika kwabantu baseSpain eningizimu-ntshonalanga ngo-1540 kwaba nethonya elimangalisayo endleleni yokuphila yabantu basePueblo. Ngo-1680, izizwe zamaPueblo zavukela umbuso waseSpain futhi zaxosha abahlali endaweni babuyela e-El Paso.  Texas ... Ngo-1692 abaseSpain bathuthela kule ndawo  I-Albuquerque ,  isimo se-mexico entsha  ... Ngenxa yokubuya kwabo, kwaba nethonya elivuselelwe lenkolo yamaKatolika, eladumaza ukuhlanganyela.  AmaPuebloans emikhosini yabo eminingi yendabuko. Ngenxa yalokho, eminingi yale mikhuba yangena ngaphansi komhlaba futhi ingxenye enkulu yesithombe sasePuebloan yenqaba.

Kwakukhona izizathu eziningi zokudalwa kwama-petroglyphs, iningi lawo elingacacile ngokuphelele emphakathini wanamuhla. Ama-Petroglyphs angaphezulu nje kokuthi "ubuciko bedwala", ukudweba izithombe noma ukulingisa umhlaba wemvelo. Akufanele zididaniswe nama-hieroglyphs, okuyizimpawu ezisetshenziselwa ukumela amagama, futhi akufanele kubhekwe njengegraffiti yasendulo yaseNdiya. Ama-Petroglyphs ayizimpawu zamasiko ezinamandla ezibonisa imiphakathi eyinkimbinkimbi nezinkolo zezizwe ezizungezile.

Izimpawu zamaNdiya, totems

Izimpawu Zomdabu ZaseMelika, AmaTotem Nezincazelo Zazo - Landa Ngedijithali

Umongo wesithombe ngasinye ubaluleke kakhulu futhi uyingxenye ebalulekile yencazelo yaso. Abantu bomdabu banamuhla bathi ukubekwa kwesithombe se-petroglyph bekungesona isinqumo esingahleliwe noma ngephutha. Amanye ama-petroglyphs anezincazelo ezaziwa kuphela yilabo abawadalile. Abanye bamele omaka besizwe, isibongo, isiwa, noma umphakathi. Ezinye zazo ziyizinhlangano zenkolo, kanti ezinye zibonisa ukuthi obani abeze endaweni nokuthi bayaphi. I-Petroglyphs isenayo incazelo yesimanje, kanti incazelo yabanye ayisaziwa, kodwa ihlonishwa ngokuba "yalabo ababekhona ngaphambili."

Kunezinkulungwane zama-pictograms nama-petroglyphs kulo lonke elase-United States, ngokugxila okukhulu eNingizimu-ntshonalanga yaseMelika. Ngaphezu kwanoma yini enye iPetroglyph National Monument eNew Mexico. Izazi zemivubukulo zilinganisela ukuthi le ndawo ingase ibe nama-petroglyphs angaphezu kuka-25000 endaweni eyi-17-mile escarpment. Iphesenti elincane lama-petroglyphs atholakala kudethi yepaki kusukela esikhathini sasePuebloan, ngokunokwenzeka ekuqaleni kuka-2000 BC. Ezinye izithombe zisuka ezikhathini zomlando eziqala ngawo-1700s, nama-petroglyphs aqoshwe izifiki zakuqala zase-Spanish. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi i-90% yama-petroglyphs esikhumbuzo adalwe okhokho babantu banamuhla basePueblo. AbasePuebloan babehlala eRio Grande Valley ngisho nangaphambi kuka-AD 500, kodwa ukukhula kwenani labantu cishe ngo-AD 1300 kwaholela ezindlini eziningi ezintsha.

Umcibisholo Защита
Umcibisholo Ukuqapha
Ngemva kwebheji Ihlobo
Ibhere Amandla
Bhele udladla Isibikezelo esihle
Intaba enkulu Inala enkulu
Inyoni Abanaki, abanganaki
Umcibisholo ophukile Izwe
Isiphambano esiphukile Izinkathi ezine ezijikelezayo
Bafowethu Ubunye, ukulingana, ukwethembeka
Roga Buivola Impumelelo
Uphahla yinyathi Ubungcwele, ukuhlonipha ukuphila
Butterfly Ukuphila okungenakufa
Cactus Uphawu logwadule
Izinyathelo ze-coyote ne-coyote Umkhohlisi
Imicibisholo ephambanayo Ubungane
Izinsuku-Ebusuku Isikhathi siyahamba
Ngemva kwenyamazane Dlala ngobuningi
Umnsalo nomcibisholo odwetshiwe Ukuzingela
Isomisi Inyama eningi
Ukhozi Inkululeko
Uphaphe loKhozi Induna
Okunamathiselwe Imidanso yemikhosi
Ukuphela komkhondo Ukuthula, ukuphela kwempi
Iso elibi Lolu phawu luvikela isiqalekiso seso elibi.
Bhekana nemicibisholo Ukubonakaliswa kwemimoya emibi
Iminyaka emine Ubusana, Intsha, Ephakathi, Ebadala
Isigcilikisha Uphawu logwadule
I-monster ye-Poisontooth Isikhathi sokuphupha
Umoya Omkhulu Umoya Omkhulu umqondo wamandla kamoya asemhlabeni wonke noma umuntu ophakeme okhona phakathi kwezizwe eziningi zaboMdabu baseMelika.
Ingubo yasekhanda Ezomkhosi
Hogan Ikhaya elihlala njalo
Ihhashi tour
UKokopelli I-Flutist, Ukuzala
ukukhanyisa Amandla, Isivinini
Umbani wombani Ukushesha
owesilisa Ukuphila
Iso lenyanga Ukuhlakanipha
Izinkanyezi zasekuseni Ukuphathwa
Uhla lwezintaba Indawo oya kuyo
Landelela Kuwele
Ipayipi lokuthula Umkhosi, ungcwele
Imvula Isivuno esihle
Amafu emvula Umbono omuhle
Imihlathi ye-Rattlesnake Amandla
Isikhwama sesihlalo tour
I-Skyband Okuholela enjabulweni
Inyoka Ukungalaleli
Imbali yethanga Ukuzala
солнце Injabulo
Imbali enelanga Ukuzala
I-Sun god mask UNkulunkulu weLanga ungumoya onamandla phakathi kwezizwe eziningi zamaNdiya.
Imisebe yelanga Njalo
Swastika Amagumbi amane omhlaba, ukuchuma
Izinhlobo Ikhaya lesikhashana
Thunderbird Injabulo Engenamkhawulo, Raincaller
Ithrekhi ye-Thunderbird Umgwaqo okhanyayo
Amanzi ayasebenza Ukuphila okuphakade
Udladla lwe-Wolf Inkululeko, impumelelo
Zuni Bhele Impilo enhle

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